*Corresponding Author: Francesco Lippi, Thyroid Center Diseases, School of Endocrinology, University of Pisa, Italy. Received: April 26, 2021; Published: April 29, 2021
The role of Vitamin D related to sunlight, has always been recognized in the past fundamental for the reduction of rickets in children. The 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D (1,25-OH2)D is the steroid hormone, involved in the regulation of mineral homeostasis and bone metabolism. Vitamin D is synthesized in the skin, due to the effect of ultraviolet radiation (cholecalciferol) and is also introduced with the diet (ergocalciferol), but minimally. The biological effects of 1,25 (OH2) D are manifested thanks to the binding with the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) which belongs to the family of nuclear super-receptors and are expressed in numerous cell types and tis- sues. The 1,25(OH2)D, like parathyroid hormone (PTH), represents the mechanism which induces bone resorption. In recent years the beneficial effects of Vitamin D it also known in cancer prevention and treatment in several epidemiological studies. In laboratory studies, Vitamin D demonstrate a potential and important role in the tumorigenesis process as the cells regulation and proliferation or apoptosis. Also, in the immunomodulation process seem that the Vitamin D can be involved, both for innate and adaptive immune system. A possible association between Vitamin D deficiency and autoimmune disease (i.e. psoriasis, type I diabetes, multiple sclero- sis, etc) has been published. The recent pandemic COVID-19 infection around the world seems that could be influenced by multiple factors (as age, comorbidity, obesity, diabetes, etc.), one of that, seems related to the deficiency of Vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency is associate with an increasing susceptibility of infection diseases as upper respiratory tract producing antimicrobial peptides that might help to reduce the inflammatory response to COVID-19 infection. This review critically examines the current information on the role of Vitamin D in humans.
Citation: Francesco Lippi and Antonetta Picone. “The Unexpected Effects of Vitamin D”. EC Endocrinology and Metabolic Research 6.5 (2021): 31-34.